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Gridcoin 5.0.0.0-Mandatory "Fern" Release

https://github.com/gridcoin-community/Gridcoin-Research/releases/tag/5.0.0.0
Finally! After over ten months of development and testing, "Fern" has arrived! This is a whopper. 240 pull requests merged. Essentially a complete rewrite that was started with the scraper (the "neural net" rewrite) in "Denise" has now been completed. Practically the ENTIRE Gridcoin specific codebase resting on top of the vanilla Bitcoin/Peercoin/Blackcoin vanilla PoS code has been rewritten. This removes the team requirement at last (see below), although there are many other important improvements besides that.
Fern was a monumental undertaking. We had to encode all of the old rules active for the v10 block protocol in new code and ensure that the new code was 100% compatible. This had to be done in such a way as to clear out all of the old spaghetti and ring-fence it with tightly controlled class implementations. We then wrote an entirely new, simplified ruleset for research rewards and reengineered contracts (which includes beacon management, polls, and voting) using properly classed code. The fundamentals of Gridcoin with this release are now on a very sound and maintainable footing, and the developers believe the codebase as updated here will serve as the fundamental basis for Gridcoin's future roadmap.
We have been testing this for MONTHS on testnet in various stages. The v10 (legacy) compatibility code has been running on testnet continuously as it was developed to ensure compatibility with existing nodes. During the last few months, we have done two private testnet forks and then the full public testnet testing for v11 code (the new protocol which is what Fern implements). The developers have also been running non-staking "sentinel" nodes on mainnet with this code to verify that the consensus rules are problem-free for the legacy compatibility code on the broader mainnet. We believe this amount of testing is going to result in a smooth rollout.
Given the amount of changes in Fern, I am presenting TWO changelogs below. One is high level, which summarizes the most significant changes in the protocol. The second changelog is the detailed one in the usual format, and gives you an inkling of the size of this release.

Highlights

Protocol

Note that the protocol changes will not become active until we cross the hard-fork transition height to v11, which has been set at 2053000. Given current average block spacing, this should happen around October 4, about one month from now.
Note that to get all of the beacons in the network on the new protocol, we are requiring ALL beacons to be validated. A two week (14 day) grace period is provided by the code, starting at the time of the transition height, for people currently holding a beacon to validate the beacon and prevent it from expiring. That means that EVERY CRUNCHER must advertise and validate their beacon AFTER the v11 transition (around Oct 4th) and BEFORE October 18th (or more precisely, 14 days from the actual date of the v11 transition). If you do not advertise and validate your beacon by this time, your beacon will expire and you will stop earning research rewards until you advertise and validate a new beacon. This process has been made much easier by a brand new beacon "wizard" that helps manage beacon advertisements and renewals. Once a beacon has been validated and is a v11 protocol beacon, the normal 180 day expiration rules apply. Note, however, that the 180 day expiration on research rewards has been removed with the Fern update. This means that while your beacon might expire after 180 days, your earned research rewards will be retained and can be claimed by advertising a beacon with the same CPID and going through the validation process again. In other words, you do not lose any earned research rewards if you do not stake a block within 180 days and keep your beacon up-to-date.
The transition height is also when the team requirement will be relaxed for the network.

GUI

Besides the beacon wizard, there are a number of improvements to the GUI, including new UI transaction types (and icons) for staking the superblock, sidestake sends, beacon advertisement, voting, poll creation, and transactions with a message. The main screen has been revamped with a better summary section, and better status icons. Several changes under the hood have improved GUI performance. And finally, the diagnostics have been revamped.

Blockchain

The wallet sync speed has been DRASTICALLY improved. A decent machine with a good network connection should be able to sync the entire mainnet blockchain in less than 4 hours. A fast machine with a really fast network connection and a good SSD can do it in about 2.5 hours. One of our goals was to reduce or eliminate the reliance on snapshots for mainnet, and I think we have accomplished that goal with the new sync speed. We have also streamlined the in-memory structures for the blockchain which shaves some memory use.
There are so many goodies here it is hard to summarize them all.
I would like to thank all of the contributors to this release, but especially thank @cyrossignol, whose incredible contributions formed the backbone of this release. I would also like to pay special thanks to @barton2526, @caraka, and @Quezacoatl1, who tirelessly helped during the testing and polishing phase on testnet with testing and repeated builds for all architectures.
The developers are proud to present this release to the community and we believe this represents the starting point for a true renaissance for Gridcoin!

Summary Changelog

Accrual

Changed

Most significantly, nodes calculate research rewards directly from the magnitudes in EACH superblock between stakes instead of using a two- or three- point average based on a CPID's current magnitude and the magnitude for the CPID when it last staked. For those long-timers in the community, this has been referred to as "Superblock Windows," and was first done in proof-of-concept form by @denravonska.

Removed

Beacons

Added

Changed

Removed

Unaltered

As a reminder:

Superblocks

Added

Changed

Removed

Voting

Added

Changed

Removed

Detailed Changelog

[5.0.0.0] 2020-09-03, mandatory, "Fern"

Added

Changed

Removed

Fixed

submitted by jamescowens to gridcoin [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale AwardsBlock rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB TokensSecond place: 100,000 CKB TokensThird place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: LotteryAt the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules:We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
DatesStart Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to ParticipateTo start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
TermsTerms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
submitted by totorun to gpumining [link] [comments]

Anti-FUD: The BIP148 enforcing client - a walkthrough.

There seems to be a lot of FUD going around surrounding https://github.com/uasf/bitcoin/tree/0.14 <--that little guy. I'm a programmer, so let me walk you through what, exactly, is changed, and how you can verify what changes for yourself.
So, to get started, click on the 'Compare' button just below the green button that says 'clone or download'. link
This shows you every single change that has been merged between bitcoin core, in the 0.14 branch (the branch that was used to create the 0.14 Core client many of us use) and this repository's version of the 0.14 client, which requires any blocks after August 1, 2017 to support Segwit.
So, let's go through the page, top to bottom, and explain what it is telling you.
19 commits 4 files changed 3 commit comments 3 contributors 
That tells you that 19 times someone has changed something in the code base, in total, 4 files were changed by those 19 commits, 3 commit comments were made (think of these as replies to a thread on reddit), and 3 people total have made contributions to the code differences represented below.
Below that is a list of what commits were made on what day. You can click on the second column (BIP148 / Update client name to Satoshi BIP148 / etc) to see what changes were made in that version (compared to the version before it) specifically.
Scroll down until you hit
Showing with 19 additions and 5 deletions. 
This is where the 'fun' (programming) begins.

src/clientversion.cpp

-std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments) +std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments, const bool fBaseNameOnly) 
Red lines, which always start with a minus sign, means that line was removed from the file. Green lines, which always start with a + sign, mean that line was added. "But the line wasn't removed, just some stuff was added to the end!" Correct! This is a 'diff-ism'. Diff being the name of the program used to show differences between a file. Diff doesn't highlight just the part of the line that changed, it highlights the entire line, and leaves it to you to spot the changes in the line.
From the above, we can see a parameter was added to the end of the line. "But what does the line do!" Well, what you're looking at is a function declaration. What is a function? Well, imagine you wanted to build a robot to make sandwiches for you. You could make the sandwich yourself, but it's easier if an automated system does it for you. The function is like the robot; you put a specific set of tasks into the robot's programming, give it a specific set of inputs (bread, knife, meat/cheese/spreads/etc) and it returns the resultant sandwich. The way to read the declaration is this:
std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments, const bool fBaseNameOnly) 
  1. std::string The first argument is the return type of the function. In this case, a C++ string.
  2. FormatSubVersion This is the name of the function
  3. (const std::string& name, the first parameter of the function, since it is unchanged from Core, and unmodified by other changes in the file, I will not bother explaining what it does.
  4. int nClientVersion, Second parameter to the function. Same thing, original, unmodified, skipping.
  5. const std::vector& comments, Parameter 3, unchanged, skipping.
  6. , const bool fBaseNameOnly) Parameter 4, 'const bool' means two things: 1) we cannot change the value of this variable in the code. 2) it's a 'bool' type, which is short for boolean. It an either be true or false, those are the only values it can ever have. What does it do? Let's keep reading.

std::ostringstream ss; 
That's important for later, make note of it.
if (!fBaseNameOnly) ss << "UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/"; 
The above is the change uses the newly minted parameter 4 to add a bit of text into the output stream. Specifically, the string "UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/" is tacked on to whatever is ahead of it in the output stream. The net result of this change is that clients using this code will report their client version as '/Santoshi:0.14.0/UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/' instead of the standard value of '/Santoshi:0.14.0/'.
File complete! Next file.

src/clientversion.h

Within C or C++ programming, you have the concept of 'code files' (ending in .c or .cpp) and 'header files' (ending in .h). Strictly speaking, any code can be in either file and the compiler will figure it out (assuming you give it enough information to do so). However, programming conventions exist. Since I assume the readers of this post are (largely) not programmers, I won't bore you. It's a convention used for sanity only, and it is a convention followed by the bitcoin source code. In general, program code that 'does stuff' goes in .c and .cpp files, and the code needed to tell the compiler (compiler = the thing that converts these text files into a program) where to 'find stuff' goes into .h files.
-std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments); +std::string FormatSubVersion(const std::string& name, int nClientVersion, const std::vector& comments, bool fBaseNameOnly = false); 
Well, because this is the exact same function call we just talked about in the previous section, I'll skip going through the parameters one by one, and instead focus only on the change: , bool fBaseNameOnly = false).
"WAIT! It has 'const' before bool in the .cpp file! That's bad right!?" No. The compiler will see const in the .cpp file and mandate the variable be const.
"WAIT! Here it says '= false' and in the .cpp file it doesn't!" Again, not a problem. Remember how I said some code goes in .c/.cpp files, and some in .h files? Well, this is a case where which file contains what code actually does matter. Basically, you can't set a default value for a parameter inside a .c/.cpp file. You can only do that in a .h file. So...that's 100% correct. Here is the souce code for a quick little program to see this behavior:
--test.cpp--
#include "test.h" #include  #include  int main() { function(); } int function(const bool tmp) { tmp = !tmp; } 
---test.h---
int function(bool test = false); 
--If you tried to compile this, you'd get--
g++ test.cpp test.cpp: In function ‘int function(bool)’: test.cpp:12:6: error: assignment of read-only parameter ‘tmp’ tmp = !tmp; 
In this case, 'read only' means 'was declared const'.
Remember how a 4th parameter was added in the code above? Well, you have to tell the compiler to expect that parameter, which you do here, in the header file. That line of code tells the compiler to expect the 4th parameter. It also sets the default value of the parameter, should the caller not specify it, to be false.
Thus, you can call this function two ways:
  1. FormatSubVersion("Test", 99900, std::vector())
  2. FormatSubVersion("Test", 99900, std::vector(), true)
Using method 1 would result in a User Agent string of '/Test:99900/UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/', because the program uses the default value of 'false' and so it sticks in the bit about BIP148 support. Using method 2 would result in '/Test:99900/' "Wait, wait, how did you figure that out?" Look here, scroll to the bottom (line 88) and that is the FormatSubVersion function we went over above. All you do is built the string in steps as you read the code:
  1. Line 90: ""
  2. Line 91: "/"
  3. Line 92: "/Test:99900" {the 'Test' comes from the 'name' parameter, parameter 1. The : is statically coded (<< ":" <<) and the 99900 comes from nClientVersion, parameter 2}
  4. Line 93: From the function call, we see that parameter 3 is initialized 'std::vector()', this is an empty vector. If the vector had anything in it, it would look like this: std::vector('a')
  5. (because the if statement in line 93 fails, we go to: ) Line 101: "/Test:99900/"
  6. Line 102: (are we doing a version with or without the 4th parameter set to true?)
  7. Line 103: (if parameter 4 is false, line becomes "/Test:99900/UASF-Segwit:0.2(BIP148)/"
  8. Line 104: Convert the 'ss' variable to a standard C++ string and return the that string to whatever asked this function to be run.
SO, in total, this function literally just creates a string. Much like the robot-sandwich example, you give the function a client name, version, and list of comments and it builds you a string containing those things.

src/test/util_tests.cpp

This file is part of the automated testing for bitcoind/bitcoin-qt. When you compile the software, you'd typically run 'make check' before installing the software, to ensure that your changes didn't break anything and that your compile didn't go wrong. With the effort I've put into explaining the change to FormatSubVersion in the past two section, I believe you can now see that the only change made to this test is to ensure that the newly added code performs as expected.
That said, there is a 'defect' in this code. He should not have removed the 3 existing tests. He should have added 3 new tests. That way he'd have both 'positive' and 'negative' test case coverage. That said, it isn't something to fret about.

src/validation.cpp

All right, finally, the big file where all the cool shit happens!
+ // BIP148 mandatory segwit signalling. + if (pindex->GetMedianTimePast() >= 1501545600 && // Tue 1 Aug 2017 00:00:00 UTC + pindex->GetMedianTimePast() <= 1510704000 && // Wed 15 Nov 2017 00:00:00 UTC + !IsWitnessEnabled(pindex->pprev, chainparams.GetConsensus())) + { + // versionbits topbit and segwit flag must be set. + if ((pindex->nVersion & VERSIONBITS_TOP_MASK) != VERSIONBITS_TOP_BITS || + (pindex->nVersion & VersionBitsMask(chainparams.GetConsensus(), Consensus::DEPLOYMENT_SEGWIT)) == 0) { + return state.DoS(0, error("ConnectBlock(): relayed block must signal for segwit, please upgrade"), REJECT_INVALID, "bad-no-segwit"); + } + } + 
The entire section is newly added. Anything it does will be 'in addition to' whatever is already done. Let's go through the change line by line:
"Ok, but what about 1501545600? How do we know that?" It's an epoch timestamp. Google 'epoch converter', copy-paste that number in, convert to UTC, and you'll see it is correct for what the comment says it is.
The '&&' at the end of the line means 'and'. So in this case, 'if the mean age of the past few blocks is greater than or equal to and ...'
You can see proof of this claim in the tests written in src/test/versionbits_tests.cpp lines 277-281. line 277 creates an 'old format' block, then (line 279) checks that the ComputeBlockVersion function works, then verifies that the bitwise-and function returns TOP_BITS, as expected.
If you are concerned that more might be needed to reject a block, simply view src/validation.cpp on line 1892 and see that standard bitcoin Core code rejects blocks in the same way as the SEGWIT patch does.
"So wait, what is the total requirement to reject a block again?"
  1. If the mean age of the past few blocks is greater than or equal to AND the mean age of the past few blocks is less than or equal to AND the previous block did not show that Segwit was in 'active' state:
  2. If all of the conditions in step 1 are met AND the block either does not support BIP9 messaging, or does not signal support for SEGWIT
  3. Then it will be rejected.
"So wait, what happens after the first segregated witness block pops across the network? Hasn't that already happened?" No. Blocks that support segwit have come across the network, but in order for IsWitnessEnabled to return 'true', the SEGWIT state would need to switch to 'active' (see BIP9 spec), which is the final state of any proposal, and the point at which the setting is considered an accepted part of the blockchain.

Conclusions

So, you see, no muss, no fuss. The day-1 bug where the logic was backwards has been fixed. There is nothing to fear. Feel free to ask questions and I'll explain them over the next few hours/days as I am able. I'll try to talk to your level if I can. I like teaching in general and abhor ignorance in all its forms. Understand: ignorance strictly means 'not knowing', rather than the typical 'negative' connotation it gets in English speaking society. I would like everyone to realize just how simple this UASF patch is and that the FUD surrounding it not being 'verified' is absolutely a bad joke.
edit: Logic fix thanks to Phil. Like shaolinfry, I had my negated logic backwards. Oops.
submitted by Kingdud to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Soft-forking the block time to 2 min: my primarily silly and academic (but seemingly effective) entry to the "increase the blockchain's capacity in an arbitrarily roundabout way as long as it's a softfork" competition

So given that large portions of the bitcoin community seem to be strongly attached to this notion that hard forks are an unforgivable evil, to the point that schemes containing hundreds of lines of code are deemed to be a preferred alternative, I thought that I'd offer an alternative strategy to increasing the bitcoin blockchain's throughput with nothing more than a soft fork - one which is somewhat involved and counterintuitive, but for which the code changes are actually quite a bit smaller than some of the alternatives; particularly, "upper layers" of the protocol stack should need no changes at all.
Notes:
The attack vector is as follows. Instead of trying to increase the size of an individual block directly, we will create a softfork where under the softfork rules, miners are compelled to insert incorrect timestamps, so as to trick the bitcoin blockchain into retargeting difficulty in such a way that on average, a block comes every two minutes instead of once every ten minutes, thereby increasing throughput to be equivalent to a 5 MB block size.
First, let us go over the bitcoin block timestamp and difficulty retargeting rules:
The last rule ensures that difficulty adjustments are "clamped" between a 4x increase and a 4x decrease no matter what.
So, how to we do this? Let's suppose for the sake of simplicity that in all examples the soft fork starts at unix time 1500000000. We could say that instead of putting the real time into blocks, miners should put 1500000000 + (t - 1500000000) * 5; this would make the blockchain think that blocks are coming 5x as rarely, and so it would decrease difficulty by a factor of 5, so that from the point of view of actual time blocks will start coming in every two minutes instead of ten. However, this approach has one problem: it is not a soft fork. Users running the original bitcoin client will very quickly start rejecting the new blocks because the timestamps are too far into the future.
Can we get around this problem? You could use 1500000000 + (t - 1500000000) * 0.2 as the formula instead, and that would be a soft fork, but that would be counterproductive: if you do that, you would instead reduce the real-world block throughput by 5x. You could try to look at schemes where you pretend that blocks come quickly sometimes and slowly at other times and "zigzag" your way to a lower net equilibrium difficulty, but that doesn't work: for mathematical reasons that have to do with the fact that 1/x always has a positive second derivative, any such strategy would inevitably gain more difficulty going up than it would lose coming down (at least as long as it stays within the constraint that "fake time" must always be less than or equal to "real time").
However, there is one clever way around this. We start off by running a soft fork that sets fake_time = 1500000000 + (real_time - 1500000000) * 0.01 for as long as is needed to get fake time 12 weeks behind real time. However, we add an additional rule: every 2016th block, we set the block timestamp equal to real time (this rule is enforced by soft-fork: if you as a miner don't do this, other miners don't build on top of your block). This way, the difficulty retargeting algorithm has no idea that anything is out of the ordinary, and so difficulty just keeps adjusting as normal. Note that because the timestamp of each block need only be higher than the median of the timestamps of the previous 11 blocks, and not necessarily higher than that of the immediately previous block, it's perfectly fine to hop right back to fake time after those single blocks at real time. During those 12 weeks, we also add a soft-forking change which invalidates a random 20% of blocks in the first two weeks, a random 36% of blocks in the second two weeks, 50% in the third two weeks, etc; this creates a gap between in-protocol difficulty and de-facto difficulty that will hit 4x by the time we start the next step (we need this to avoid having an 8-week period where block throughput is at 250 kb per 10 minutes).
Then, once we have 12 weeks of "leeway", we perform the following maneuver. We do the first retarget with the timestamp equal to fake time; this increases difficulty by 4x (as the timestamp difference is -12 weeks, which gets clamped to the minimum of 302400 seconds = 0.5 weeks). The retarget after that, we set the timestamp 8 weeks ahead of fake time, so as to get the difficulty down 4x. The retargeting round after that, we determine the actual retargeting coefficient c that we want to have, and clamp it so that 0.5 <= c < 2. We set the block timestamp c * 2 weeks ahead of the timestamp of the previous retargeting block. Then, in the retargeting round after that, we set the block timestamp back at fake time, and start the cycle again. Rinse and repeat forever.
Diagram here: http://i.imgur.com/sqKa00e.png
Hence, in general we spend 2/3 of our retargeting periods in lower-difficulty mode, and 1/3 in higher-difficulty. We choose c to target the block time in lower-difficulty mode to 30 seconds, so that in higher-difficulty mode it will be two minutes. In lower-difficulty mode, we add another softfork change in order to make a random 75% of blocks that get produced invalid (eg. one simple way to do this is to just pretend that the difficulty during these periods is 4x higher), so the actual block time duing all periods will converge toward two minutes - equivalent to a throughput of 5 MB every ten minutes.
Note that a corollary of this is that it is possible for a majority of miners to collude using the technique above to make the block rewards come out 5x faster (or even more) than they are supposed to, thereby greatly enriching themselves at the expense of future network security. This is a slight argument in favor of bitcoin's finite supply over infinite supply models (eg. dogecoin), because in an infinite supply model this means that you can actually permanently expand issuance via a soft fork rather than just making the existing limited issuance come out faster. This is a quirk of bitcoin's difficulty adjustment algorithm specifically; other algorithms are immune to this specific trick though they may be vulnerable to tricks of their own.
Homework:
EDIT:
I looked at the code again and it seems like the difficulty retargeting algorithm might actually only look 2015 blocks back every 2016 blocks rather than every 2016 blocks (ie. it checks the timestamp difference between block 2016*k+2015 and 2016*k, not 2016*k+2016 and 2016*k as I had assumed). In that case, the timestamp dance and the initial capacity adjustment process might actually be substantially simpler than I thought: it would simply be a one-step procedure of always setting the timestamp at 2016*k to equal real time and then setting the timestamp of 2016*k+2015 to whatever is convenient for achieving the desired difficulty adjustment.
EDIT 2:
I think I may have been wrong about the effectiveness of this strategy being limited by the minimum safe block time. Specifically, note that you can construct a soft fork where the in-protocol difficulty drops to the point where it's negligible, and say that all blocks where block.number % N != 0 have negligible difficulty but blocks where block.number % N = 0 are soft-forked to have higher de-facto difficulty; in this case, a miner's optimal strategy will be to simultaneously generate N-1 easy blocks and a hard block and if successful publish them as a package, creating a "de-facto block" of theoretically unlimited size.
submitted by vbuterin to btc [link] [comments]

Question about Automatic Replay Protection (May 2019 upgrade)

According to the new 2019 spec of Bitcoin Cash:

Automatic Replay Protection

When the median time past [1] of the most recent 11 blocks (MTP-11) is less than UNIX timestamp 1573819200 (Nov 2019 upgrade) Bitcoin Cash full nodes MUST enforce the following rule:
When the median time past [1] of the most recent 11 blocks (MTP-11) is greater than or equal to UNIX timestamp 1573819200 (Nov 2019 upgrade) Bitcoin Cash full nodes implementing the May 2019 consensus rules SHOULD enforce the following change:
This particular consensus rule MUST NOT be implemented by Bitcoin Cash wallet software. Wallets that follow the upgrade should not have to change anything.

https://github.com/bitcoincashorg/bitcoincash.org/blob/mastespec/2019-05-15-upgrade.md

---
What does it mean in practice ?
Replay protection from who ? From Bitcoin SV or from Bitcoin Core users ?
Any new rules regarding inability to rollback (51% miner attacks) ?
submitted by Technologov to btc [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to EtherMining [link] [comments]

AMA request: Adam Back, new CEO of Blockstream after Austin Hill left. Remember your 2-4-8 MB blocksize proposal? Those were the days! You don't talk to Bitcoin users much anymore. How's it going? What's going on with Blockstream? There's a lot going on with Bitcoin. Are you free to talk w/us a bit?

Now that you're not only working on Blockstream's latest flagship product (the Lightning Network) but you're also CEO of Blockstream, then it would seem reasonable for the community to expect you might reach out to us once in a while - particularly at times like this when so much is going on with Blockstream and with Bitcoin.
I know I have lots of questions. I tried to group them into half a dozen sets of related questions below. I think many people would really like to hear what you might have to say on these issues.
(1) A recent top post on btc questioned whether Blockstream will ever be able to manage to deliver a "legitimate product" to show for the $76 million that the "VC" venture-capital guys from finance companies like AXA and PwC invested in your startup.
From a business point of view (which supposedly is now your area - as CEO), the following excerpt is perhaps the most interesting section of that post:
[Blockchain's] magical "off-chain layer 2 solutions" were just buzzwords sold to investors as blockchain hype was blowing up. Austin Hill sold some story, rounded up some devs, and figured he could monopolize Bitcoin. Perhaps he saw Blockstream as "the Apple of Unix" - bringing an open-source nerdy tech to the masses at stupid product margins. But it doesn't look like anyone did 5 minutes of due diligence to realize this is absolutely moronic.
So first Blockstream was a sidechain company, now it's an LN company, and if SegWit doesn't pass, they'll have no legitimate product to show for it. Blockstream was able to stop development of a free market ecosystem to make a competitive wedge for their product, but then they never figured out how to build the product!
Now after pivoting twice, Austin Hill is out and Adam Back has been instated CEO. I would bet he is under some serious pressure to deliver anything at all, and SegWit is all they have, mediocre as it is - and now it might not even activate. It certainly doesn't monetize, even if it activates.
So no matter what, Blockstream has never generated revenue from a product.
So... None of your proposed scaling products are actually ready - and nobody even knows if they'll realistically be ready even a couple years from now.
Meanwhile a competitor's scaling product already is ready.
In fact, your competitor's scaling product is not only ready - it's also being used by a small but significant and growing (and intelligent and outspoken and articulate) percentage of users - humming along quietly and compatibly on an increasing number of nodes on the Bitcoin network.
And this competitor's scaling product is so simple and so easy to deploy that it could literally gain consensus on the network at any time now.
That's right: at any point in the next few months, the whole network could "flip over" to your competitor's product - and the whole "flip-over" could happen in a mere matter of days.
And this isn't just some remote possibility - it's actually highly likely, the way things have been going lately.
I wonder what your investors think about that. Have they reached out to express any concerns to you? What have you said to them?
Are we even allowed to be privy to some tidbits from these conversations (just to give us some idea of what you're planning on doing next with Satoshi's reference client which people have entrusted with you)?
What are your priorities now? Who do you regard as your constituency/constituencies? Who are you responsible to - legally as CEO of Blocsktream, and personally, as "Adam Back, Individual"?
Are you under any kind of non-disclosure agreements which would inhibit your ability to speak openly and freely about your plans for Bitcoin with the Bitcoin user community (miners, holders, on-chain transactors)?
You've probably noticed that Bitcoin has been rallying (perhaps on the recent news of Chinese currency devaluation) - but Bitcoin users have been getting a horrible experience, and some have begun complaining rather loudly about it.
People are experiencing massive congestion, delays, and unreliable delivery using the software which your company refused to upgrade (even though you yourself proposed a one of the many simple obvious upgrades which would have solved the current congestion: your 2-4-8 MB proposal).
How do you feel about this?
Do you recognize the role you have played in helping to bring this situation about?
Do you have any ideas on things you might be able to do to improve this situation?
(2) Your competitor's upgrade (already running on part of the network) would easily solve the current congestion problems - with no change to the existing network topology, with minimal impact on the existing software ecosystem currently used by the major wallets and exchanges, and without the need to do any further blocksize upgrades in the future (since it makes the blocksize an emergent phenomenon continuously adapting via consensus on the network).
Meanwhile, your proposed scaling product isn't ready yet, might not be ready for months or even years, doesn't have a defined working network topology (no routing), and would massively impact the existing software ecosystem - requiring thousands of lines of code to be re-written (and re-tested and re-deployed).
Do you have anything you would like to say to users and your fellow developers who would be heavily impacted by your proposals and your delays?
What are you telling your investors about how this current situation is likely to play out?
What kinds of plans does your company have if its products fail to materialize - or materialize but fail to be adopted by users?
There have been ongoing concerns and objections regarding your company's decision to deploy your upgrade using a methodology which many people believe is needlessly over-complicated and thus less safe for the network: ie, your insistence on upgrading via a soft fork
Many developers (not directly associated with your company) have pointed out that hard forks are signficantly cleaner and safer because they're simpler and more explicit.
Why are you continuing to insist on doing a soft fork, over the reasonable objections of your fellow developers in the community?
What do you have to say to allegations that your company is putting its own interests ahead of the interests of the Bitcoin community (because hard forks are better for Bitcoin but soft forks are better for Blockstream)?
As CEO of Blockstream, do you have anything you'd like to say to the community about these issues regarding the differences between your company's technology, upgrade path, and timetable versus the competition's?
And again, what are you saying to your investors about all of this?
(3) Austin Hill was CEO of Blockstream before you, and he recently left. The community is putting its own various spins on his departure. Do you have anything you'd like to tell us about why he left?
Blockstream was basically created by you and Austin and CTO Gregory Maxwell.
What kind of relationship did you and Austin have? At the beginning, and towards the end of his tenure as CEO?
What were your and his understandings of Blockstream's business plans and prospects?
Did these change over time?
What kind of role do you see yourself playing now - as a cryptographer who now finds himself CEO of a company that claims to be custodian of the "reference client" of the world's leading cryptocurrency?
(4) Regarding the "reference client" - do you have anything to say about the recent statements from prominent developers criticizing your dev team for taking the unusual approach of trying to pass off your reference client implementation as some kind of "de facto" specification?
In particular, how would you respond to fellow prominent cryptocurrency researchers (Emin Gün Sirer and Vitalik Buterin who last week publicly criticized your team's unorthodox claims that "the reference client is the specification"?
As a mathematician and a programmer and an academic, surely you have a deep understanding of the relationship between a specification and its implementation(s) - in particular, the Curry-Howard isomorphism which states that this relationship is equivalent to the relationship between a theorem and its proof(s).
Are you going to also tell us with a straight face (like some of the junior colleagues associated with your company already have) that "the implementation is the specification" or that "it isn't possible to write a specification for this implementation"?
Do you realize how silly this sort of thing sounds to the actual computer scientists involved in Bitcoin - who understand quite clearly that you're saying "we're writing a proof without a theorem" when you say "we're writing an implementation without a specification"?
Do you not feel compelled to engage with at least your fellow crytocurrency researchers who made these kinds of public criticisms of the very mathematical foundations informing your company's view of its role in the standardization process for the Bitcoin protocol?
Are you still even at liberty to participate in these kinds of spirited debates on mathematical foundations with your peers in the community, given your other commitments and obligations as CEO now?
(5) Now you're CEO of Blockstream, and Greg Maxwell continues as CTO.
We all know that this is probably the first time in history where the CTO of a major company has previously publicly called the new CEO a "dipshit" - but we're all adults and people say things.
Beyond that moment of friction in the past: What are you and Greg working on these days, and how do you work together?
Given the current events and controversies in the Bitcoin space (the ongoing congestion problems, the rise of Bitcoin Unlimited, the growing rejection of your products such as SegWit by ViaBTC and other major users), how are the devs and owners of Blockstream reacting to all these ongoing developments?
Do you and Greg agree on the course your company is taking with Bitcoin?
(6) Since its founding, we've come to discover that the cornerstone of Blockstream's strategy has been to try to prevent other development teams from providing "level 1" scaling solutions for Bitcoin.
There have been several examples of this:
  • censorship of on-chain scaling proposals on r\bitcoin and at conferences;
  • statements by miners from China implying that they cooperated with your goal to stifle your competition - although you stiffed ended up stiffing your "collaborators" on that deal, when you broke the Hong Kong agreement
Meanwhile, Blockstream's much-hyped proposed level-2 scaling solutions are starting to look so flawed and faraway and incomplete that serious questions are being raised as to whether they will ever come to fruition - not only several months from now, but even possibly several years from now.
In light of the above (Blockstream's failure to deliver its own proposed level-2, off-chain scaling solutions - along with its efforts to prevent other parties from delivering their working, level-1, on-chain scaling solutions) - as well as your well-known calls for people to "collaborate" - what kind of collaboration do you envision we could work on together at this time?
In particular, you are well-aware of the community's urgent need for simple and safe on-chain scaling solutions at this time - and indeed you were the author of one such solution at one point, your earlier 2-4-8 MB proposal.
How did we get to this point we're at now - where multiple, obvious, easy on-chain scaling solutions have been staring us in the face for ages (Bitcoin Unlimited, your 2-4-8 MB proposal) - and yet today here we are today with Bitcoin network performance being degraded before our very eyes, users publicly complaining, miners rejecting your proposed future scaling solutions, and no current scaling solutions from you, after all these broken promises and missed deadlines?
How did you let things drag on for years like this, with Blockstream continuing to fail to deliver your proposed scaling solutions, while simultaneously preventing anyone else from delivering their already-implemented scaling solutions?
How can you claim to want to "collaborate" with the community if you've let the situation, and the communication, deteriorate to this point?
Do you, Adam Back, have anything you can contribute to help Bitcoin at this time - as CEO of Blockstream, or as an individual?
submitted by ydtm to btc [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by ClareKuang to cryptomining [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by ClareKuang to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to MiningRig [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to Crypto_General [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by ClareKuang to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition

The Nervos Common Knowledge Base (CKB) is a preservation focused, “Store of Assets” public permissionless blockchain and the base layer of the Nervos network. Nervos generalizes Bitcoin’s UTXO model, creating a ‘cell model’ that supports smart contracts and Layer 2 protocols with a RISC-V virtual machine.
Check out the Nervos CKB in a Nutshell article!: https://medium.com/nervosnetwork/nervos-ckb-in-a-nutshell-7a4ac8f99e0e
Nervos CKB Testnet Mining Competition - https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/ To provide the community increased opportunities for involvement in the construction of Nervos CKB, the Nervos Foundation has officially decided to sponsor and host the Nervos CKB testnet mining competition. Anyone (outside of U.S. citizens unfortunately 😬) can participate in the event by mining testnet tokens and compete for a total prize of 1 million mainnet CKB tokens.
Reward One: Mining Whale Awards Block rewards produced by each address will be ranked. Upon the completion of competition, the top three addresses that have mined the highest amount of block rewards will be rewarded as follows:
First place: 200,000 CKB Tokens Second place: 100,000 CKB Tokens Third place: 60,000 CKB Tokens
Reward Two: Lottery At the end of competition, 64 addresses will be randomly selected from addresses that have produced blocks (with the top three addresses excluded) and will be given 10,000 CKB tokens as rewards.
Lottery Rules: We will release the code base for lottery drawing ahead of time and use the block hash of the block at Nth block height as the seed for random number generation for selecting the lucky addresses.
We will announce a hash at the same time; the hash’s preimage will include information about N.
Participants will be able to use announced hash and lottery code to verify the outcome of the lottery.
Dates Start Time: Saturday, June 15, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1560578400 At this time, participants can download the latest version of CKB client (v0.14.0) from GitHub releases https://github.com/nervosnetwork/ckb/releases, start a node, join the testnet and start mining.
End Time: Saturday, June 29, 2019 6:00:00 AM UTC, UNIX Timestamp: 1561788000 Based on the UNIX timestamp of the block, the competition will end and the block reward rankings will be calculated.
How to Participate To start mining on CKB testnet, simply follow the steps outlined in the official guide https://docs.nervos.org/ or community-created tutorials https://talk.nervos.org/. A CKB blockchain browser https://explorer.nervos.org/ is available to check mining rewards.
Upon the completion of competition, we will calculate block rewards mined by each address. The accumulated block reward of each address during the competition will be the basis for determining the competition's winning miners and recipients of CKB mainnet token prizes (testnet tokens gained by transactions will NOT be counted as block rewards).
Rewards will be distributed directly to respective addresses on CKB mainnet. Hence, please exercise caution when managing your private key as it will be your sole means of claiming your CKB mainnet token rewards.
Things to Note
Terms Terms and Conditions:
Disclaimer:
Contact Us
Link: https://mineyourownbusiness.nervos.org/
submitted by Lilianli87 to bitcoinxt [link] [comments]

The Nexus FAQ - part 1

Full formatted version: https://docs.google.com/document/d/16KKjVjQH0ypLe00aoTJ_hZyce7RAtjC5XHom104yn6M/
 

Nexus 101:

  1. What is Nexus?
  2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
  3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
  4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement this?
  5. What is Nexus’ Unified Time protocol?
  6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
 

The Nexus Currency:

  1. How can I get Nexus?
  2. How much does a transaction cost?
  3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
  4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
  5. Is there a cap on the number of Nexus in existence?
  6. What is the difference between the Oracle wallet and the LLD wallet?
  7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
  8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
 

Types of Mining or Minting:

  1. Can I mine Nexus?
  2. How do I mine Nexus?
  3. How do I stake Nexus?
  4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are trust weight, block weight and stake weight?
 

Nexus 101:

1. What is Nexus (NXS)?
Nexus is a digital currency, distributed framework, and peer-to-peer network. Nexus further improves upon the blockchain protocol by focusing on the following core technological principles:
Nexus will combine our in-development quantum-resistant 3D blockchain software with cutting edge communication satellites to deliver a free, distributed, financial and data solution. Through our planned satellite and ground-based mesh networks, Nexus will provide uncensored internet access whilst bringing the benefits of distributed database systems to the world.
For a short video introduction to Nexus Earth, please visit this link
 
2. What benefits does Nexus bring to the blockchain space?
As Nexus has been developed, an incredible amount of time has been put into identifying and solving several key limitations:
Nexus is also developing a framework called the Lower Level Library. This LLL will incorporate the following improvements:
For information about more additions to the Lower Level Library, please visit here
 
3. How does Nexus secure the network and reach consensus?
Nexus is unique amongst blockchain technology in that Nexus uses 3 channels to secure the network against attack. Whereas Bitcoin uses only Proof-of-Work to secure the network, Nexus combines a prime number channel, a hashing channel and a Proof-of-Stake channel. Where Bitcoin has a difficulty adjustment interval measured in weeks, Nexus can respond to increased hashrate in the space of 1 block and each channel scales independently of the other two channels. This stabilizes the block times at ~50 seconds and ensures no single channel can monopolize block production. This means that a 51% attack is much more difficult to launch because an attacker would need to control all 3 channels.
Every 60 minutes, the Nexus protocol automatically creates a checkpoint. This prevents blocks from being created or modified dated prior to this checkpoint, thus protecting the chain from malicious attempts to introduce an alternate blockchain.
 
4. What is quantum resistance and how does Nexus implement it?
To understand what quantum resistance is and why it is important, you need to understand how quantum computing works and why it’s a threat to blockchain technology. Classical computing uses an array of transistors. These transistors form the heart of your computer (the CPU). Each transistor is capable of being either on or off, and these states are used to represent the numerical values 1 and 0.
Binary digits’ (bits) number of states depends on the number of transistors available, according to the formula 2n, where n is the number of transistors. Classical computers can only be in one of these states at any one time, so the speed of your computer is limited to how fast it can change states.
Quantum computers utilize quantum bits, “qubits,” which are represented by the quantum state of electrons or photons. These particles are placed into a state called superposition, which allows the qubit to assume a value of 1 or 0 simultaneously.
Superposition permits a quantum computer to process a higher number of data possibilities than a classical computer. Qubits can also become entangled. Entanglement makes a qubit dependant on the state of another, enabling quantum computing to calculate complex problems, extremely quickly.
One such problem is the Discrete Logarithm Problem which elliptic curve cryptography relies on for security. Quantum computers can use Shor’s algorithm to reverse a key in polynomial time (which is really really really fast). This means that public keys become vulnerable to quantum attack, since quantum computers are capable of being billions of times faster at certain calculations. One way to increase quantum resistance is to require more qubits (and more time) by using larger private keys:
Bitcoin Private Key (256 bit) 5Kb8kLf9zgWQnogidDA76MzPL6TsZZY36hWXMssSzNydYXYB9KF
Nexus Private Key (571 bit) 6Wuiv513R18o5cRpwNSCfT7xs9tniHHN5Lb3AMs58vkVxsQdL4atHTF Vt5TNT9himnCMmnbjbCPxgxhSTDE5iAzCZ3LhJFm7L9rCFroYoqz
Bitcoin addresses are created by hashing the public key, so it is not possible to decrypt the public key from the address; however, once you send funds from that address, the public key is published on the blockchain rendering that address vulnerable to attack. This means that your money has higher chances of being stolen.
Nexus eliminates these vulnerabilities through an innovation called signature chains. Signature chains will enable access to an account using a username, password and PIN. When you create a transaction on the network, you claim ownership of your signature chain by revealing the public key of the NextHash (the hash of your public key) and producing a signature from the one time use private key. Your wallet then creates a new private/public keypair, generates a new NextHash, including the corresponding contract. This contract can be a receive address, a debit, a vote, or any other type of rule that is written in the contract code.
This keeps the public key obscured until the next transaction, and by divorcing the address from the public key, it is unnecessary to change addresses in order to change public keys. Changing your password or PIN code becomes a case of proving ownership of your signature chain and broadcasting a new transaction with a new NextHash for your new password and/or PIN. This provides the ability to login to your account via the signature chain, which becomes your personal chain within the 3D chain, enabling the network to prove and disprove trust, and improving ease of use without sacrificing security.
The next challenge with quantum computers is that Grover’s algorithm reduces the security of one-way hash function by a factor of two. Because of this, Nexus incorporates two new hash functions, Skein and Keccak, which were designed in 2008 as part of a contest to create a new SHA3 standard. Keccak narrowly defeated Skein to win the contest, so to maximize their potential Nexus combines these algorithms. Skein and Keccak utilize permutation to rotate and mix the information in the hash.
To maintain a respective 256/512 bit quantum resistance, Nexus uses up to 1024 bits in its proof-of-work, and 512 bits for transactions.
 
5. What is the Unified Time protocol?
All blockchains use time-stamping mechanisms, so it is important that all nodes operate using the same clock. Bitcoin allows for up to 2 hours’ discrepancy between nodes, which provides a window of opportunity for the blockchain to be manipulated by time-related attack vectors. Nexus eliminates this vulnerability by implementing a time synchronization protocol termed Unified Time. Unified Time also enhances transaction processing and will form an integral part of the 3D chain scaling solution.
The Unified Time protocol facilitates a peer-to-peer timing system that keeps all clocks on the network synchronized to within a second. This is seeded by selected nodes with timestamps derived from the UNIX standard; that is, the number of seconds since January 1st, 1970 00:00 UTC. Every minute, the seed nodes report their current time, and a moving average is used to calculate the base time. Any node which sends back a timestamp outside a given tolerance is rejected.
It is important to note that the Nexus network is fully synchronized even if an individual wallet displays something different from the local time.
 
6. Why does Nexus need its own satellite network?
One of the key limitations of a purely electronic monetary system is that it requires a connection to the rest of the network to verify transactions. Existing network infrastructure only services a fraction of the world’s population.
Nexus, in conjunction with Vector Space Systems, is designing communication satellites, or cubesats, to be launched into Low Earth Orbit in 2019. Primarily, the cubesat mesh network will exist to give Nexus worldwide coverage, but Nexus will also utilize its orbital and ground mesh networks to provide free and uncensored internet access to the world.
 

The Nexus Currency (NXS):

1. How can I get Nexus?
There are two ways you can obtain Nexus. You can either buy Nexus from an exchange, or you can run a miner and be rewarded for finding a block. If you wish to mine Nexus, please follow our guide found below.
Currently, Nexus is available on the following exchanges:
Nexus is actively reaching out to other exchanges to continue to be listed on cutting edge new financial technologies..
 
2. How much does a transaction cost?
Under Nexus, the fee structure for making a transaction depends on the size of your transaction. A default fee of 0.01 NXS will cover most transactions, and users have the option to pay higher fees to ensure their transactions are processed quickly.
When the 3D chain is complete and the initial 10-year distribution period finishes, Nexus will absorb these fees through inflation, enabling free transactions.
 
3. How fast does Nexus transfer?
Nexus reaches consensus approximately every ~ 50 seconds. This is an average time, and will in some circumstances be faster or slower. NXS currency which you receive is available for use after just 6 confirmations. A confirmation is proof from a node that the transaction has been included in a block. The number of confirmations in this transaction is the number that states how many blocks it has been since the transaction is included. The more confirmations a transaction has, the more secure its placement in the blockchain is.
 
4. Did Nexus hold an ICO? How is Nexus funded?
The Nexus Embassy, a 501(C)(3) not-for-profit corporation, develops and maintains the Nexus blockchain software. When Nexus began under the name Coinshield, the early blocks were mined using the Developer and Exchange (Ambassador) addresses, which provides funding for the Nexus Embassy.
The Developer Fund fuels ongoing development and is sourced by a 1.5% commission per block mined, which will slowly increase to 2.5% after 10 years. This brings all the benefits of development funding without the associated risks.
The Ambassador (renamed from Exchange) keys are funded by a 20% commission per block reward. These keys are mainly used to pay for marketing, and producing and launching the Nexus satellites.
When Nexus introduces developer and ambassador contracts, they will be approved, denied, or removed by six voting groups namely: currency, developer, ambassador, prime, hash, and trust.
Please Note: The Nexus Embassy reserves the sole right to trade, sell and or use these funds as required; however, Nexus will endeavor to minimize the impact that the use of these funds has upon the NXS market value.
 
5. Is there a cap on the number of NXS in existence?
After an initial 10-year distribution period ending on September 23rd, 2024, there will be a total of 78 million NXS. Over this period, the reward gradient for mining Nexus follows a decaying logarithmic curve instead of the reward halving inherent in Bitcoin. This avoids creating a situation where older mining equipment is suddenly unprofitable, encouraging miners to continue upgrading their equipment over time and at the same time reducing major market shocks on block halving events.
When the distribution period ends, the currency supply will inflate annually by a maximum of 3% via staking and by 1% via the prime and hashing channels. This inflation is completely unlike traditional inflation, which degrades the value of existing coins. Instead, the cost of providing security to the blockchain is paid by inflation, eliminating transaction fees.
Colin Cantrell - Nexus Inflation Explained
 
6. What is the difference between the LLD wallet and the Oracle wallet?
Due to the scales of efficiency needed by blockchain, Nexus has developed a custom-built database called the Lower Level Database. Since the development of the LLD wallet 0.2.3.1, which is a precursor to the Tritium updates, you should begin using the LLD wallet to take advantage of the faster load times and improved efficiency.
The Oracle wallet is a legacy wallet which is no longer maintained or updated. It utilized the Berkeley DB, which is not designed to meet the needs of a blockchain. Eventually, users will need to migrate to the LLD wallet. Fortunately, the wallet.dat is interchangeable between wallets, so there is no risk of losing access to your NXS.
 
7. How do I change from Oracle to the LLD wallet?
Step 1 - Backup your wallet.dat file. You can do this from within the Oracle wallet Menu, Backup Wallet.
Step 2 - Uninstall the Oracle wallet. Close the wallet and navigate to the wallet data directory. On Windows, this is the Nexus folder located at %APPDATA%\Nexus. On macOS, this is the Nexus folder located at ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus. Move all of the contents to a temporary folder as a backup.
Step 3 - Copy your backup of wallet.dat into the Nexus folder located as per Step 2.
Step 4 - Install the Nexus LLD wallet. Please follow the steps as outlined in the next section. Once your wallet is fully synced, your new wallet will have access to all your addresses.
 
8. How do I install the Nexus Wallet?
You can install your Nexus wallet by following these steps:
Step 1 - Download your wallet from www.nexusearth.com. Click the Downloads menu at the top and select the appropriate wallet for your operating system.
Step 2 - Unzip the wallet program to a folder. Before running the wallet program, please consider space limitations and load times. On the Windows OS, the wallet saves all data to the %APPDATA%\Nexus folder, including the blockchain, which is currently ~3GB.
On macOS, data is saved to the ~/Library/Application Support/Nexus folder. You can create a symbolic link, which will allow you to install this information in another location.
Using Windows, follow these steps:
On macOS, follow these steps:
Step 3 (optional) - Before running the wallet, we recommend downloading the blockchain database manually. Nexus Earth maintains a copy of the blockchain data which can save hours from the wallet synchronization process. Please go to www.nexusearth.com and click the Downloads menu.
Step 4 (optional) - Extract the database file. This is commonly found in the .zip or .rar format, so you may need a program like 7zip to extract the contents. Please extract it to the relevant directory, as outlined in step 2.
Step 5 - You can now start your wallet. After it loads, it should be able to complete synchronization in a short time. This may still take a couple of hours. Once it has completed synchronizing, a green check mark icon will appear in the lower right corner of the wallet.
Step 6 - Encrypt your wallet. This can be done within the wallet, under the Settings menu. Encrypting your wallet will lock it, requiring a password in order to send transactions.
Step 7 - Backup your wallet.dat file. This can be done from the File menu inside the wallet. This file contains the keys to the addresses in your wallet. You may wish to keep a secure copy of your password somewhere, too, in case you forget it or someone else (your spouse, for example) ever needs it.
You should back up your wallet.dat file again any time you create – or a Genesis transaction creates (see “staking” below) – a new address.
 

Types of Mining or Minting:

1.Can I mine Nexus?
Yes, there are 2 channels that you can use to mine Nexus, and 1 channel of minting:
Prime Mining Channel
This mining channel looks for a special prime cluster of a set length. This type of calculation is resistant to ASIC mining, allowing for greater decentralization. This is most often performed using the CPU.
Hashing Channel
This channel utilizes the more traditional method of hashing. This process adds a random nonce, hashes the data, and compares the resultant hash against a predetermined format set by the difficulty. This is most often performed using a GPU.
Proof of Stake (nPoS)
Staking is a form of mining NXS. With this process, you can receive NXS rewards from the network for continuously operating your node (wallet). It is recommended that you only stake with a minimum balance of 1000 NXS. It’s not impossible to stake with less, but it becomes harder to maintain trust. Losing trust resets the interest rate back to 0.5% per annum.
 
2. How do I mine Nexus?
As outlined above, there are two types of mining and 1 proof of stake. Each type of mining uses a different component of your computer to find blocks, the CPU or the GPU. Nexus supports CPU and GPU mining on Windows only. There are also third-party macOS builds available.
Please follow the instructions below for the relevant type of miner.
 
Prime Mining:
Almost every CPU is capable of mining blocks on this channel. The most effective method of mining is to join a mining pool and receive a share of the rewards based on the contribution you make. To create your own mining facility, you need the CPU mining software, and a NXS address. This address cannot be on an exchange. You create an address when you install your Nexus wallet. You can find the related steps under How Do I Install the Nexus Wallet?
Please download the relevant miner from http://nexusearth.com/mining.html. Please note that there are two different miner builds available: the prime solo miner and the prime pool miner. This guide will walk you through installing the pool miner only.
Step 1 - Extract the archive file to a folder.
Step 2 - Open the miner.conf file. You can use the default host and port, but these may be changed to a pool of your choice. You will need to change the value of nxs_address to the address found in your wallet. Sieve_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to use to find primes. Ptest_threads is the number of CPU threads you want to test the primes found by the sieve. As a general rule, the number of threads used for the sieve should be 75% of the threads used for testing.
It is also recommended to add the following line to the options found in the .conf file:
"experimental" : "true"
This option enables the miner to use an improved sieve algorithm which will enable your miner to find primes at a faster rate.
Step 3 - Run the nexus_cpuminer.exe file. For a description of the information shown in this application, please read this guide.
 
Hashing:
The GPU is a dedicated processing unit housed on-board your graphics card. The GPU is able to perform certain tasks extremely well, unlike your CPU, which is designed for parallel processing. Nexus supports both AMD and Nvidia GPU mining, and works best on the newer models. Officially, Nexus does not support GPU pool mining, but there are 3rd party miners with this capability.
The latest software for the Nvidia miner can be found here. The latest software for the AMD miner can be found here. The AMD miner is a third party miner. Information and advice about using the AMD miner can be found on our Slack channel. This guide will walk you through the Nvidia miner.
Step 1 - Close your wallet. Navigate to %appdata%\Nexus (~/Library/Application Support/Nexus on macOS) and open the nexus.conf file. Depending on your wallet, you may or may not have this file. If not, please create a new txt file and save it as nexus.conf
You will need to add the following lines before restarting your wallet:
Step 2 - Extract the files into a new folder.
Step 3 - Run the nexus.bat file. This will run the miner and deposit any rewards for mining a block into the account on your wallet.
For more information on either Prime Mining or Hashing, please join our Slack and visit the #mining channel. Additional information can be found here.
 
3. How do I stake Nexus?
Once you have your wallet installed, fully synchronized and encrypted, you can begin staking by:
After you begin staking, you will receive a Genesis transaction as your first staking reward. This establishes a Trust key in your wallet and stakes your wallet balance on that key. From that point, you will periodically receive additional Trust transactions as further staking rewards for as long as your Trust key remains active.
IMPORTANT - After you receive a Genesis transaction, backup your wallet.dat file immediately. You can select the Backup Wallet option from the File menu, or manually copy the file directly. If you do not do this, then your Nexus balance will be staked on the Trust key that you do not have backed up, and you risk loss if you were to suffer a hard drive failure or other similar problem. In the future, signature chains will make this precaution unnecessary.
 
4. I am staking with my Nexus balance. What are interest rate, trust weight, block weight, and stake weight?
These items affect the size and frequency of staking rewards after you receive your initial Genesis transaction. When staking is active, the wallet displays a clock icon in the bottom right corner. If you hover your mouse pointer over the icon, a tooltip-style display will open up, showing their current values.
Please remember to backup your wallet.dat file (see question 3 above) after you receive a Genesis transaction.
Interest Rate - The minting rate at which you will receive staking rewards, displayed as an annual percentage of your NXS balance. It starts at 0.5%, increasing to 3% after 12 months. The rate increase is not linear but slows over time. It takes several weeks to reach 1% and around 3 months to reach 2%.
With this rate, you can calculate the average amount of NXS you can expect to receive each day for staking.
Trust Weight - An indication of how much the network trusts your node. It starts at 5% and increases much more quickly than the minting (interest) rate, reaching 100% after one month. Your level of trust increases your stake weight (below), thus increasing your chances of receiving staking transactions. It becomes easier to maintain trust as this value increases.
Block Weight - Upon receipt of a Genesis transaction, this value will begin increasing slowly, reaching 100% after 24 hours. Every time you receive a staking transaction, the block weight resets. If your block weight reaches 100%, then your Trust key expires and everything resets (0.5% interest rate, 5% trust weight, waiting for a new Genesis transaction).
This 24-hour requirement will be replaced by a gradual decay in the Tritium release. As long as you receive a transaction before it decays completely, you will hold onto your key. This change addresses the potential of losing your trust key after months of staking simply because of one unlucky day receiving trust transactions.
Stake Weight - The higher your stake weight, the greater your chance of receiving a transaction. The exact value is a derived by a formula using your trust weight and block weight, which roughly equals the average of the two. Thus, each time you receive a transaction, your stake weight will reset to approximately half of your current level of trust.
submitted by scottsimon36 to nexusearth [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Unix Epoch "Y2K bug"?

I'm new to bitcoin, and have been reading the excellent Mastering Bitcoin O'Reilly book by A Antonopoulos and like, I have a really obvious question. Blockchain headers contain a 4-byte Unix timestamp (seconds since Jan 1, 1970). Unix timestamps will overflow on January 19, 2038 03:14:07 GMT, but the bitcoin network is supposed to be more or less operational (ie handing out more bitcoin to lucky miners) until 2140.
Ok so my question: what's going to happen to bitcoins mined before the epoch expiration? since this is in the block header, will it fuck up the chain? why didn't anyone think of this when they were putting the protocol together? or are people actively fixing this? is bitcoin as we know it fucked?
discuss.
submitted by niftynei to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Historical Analogy between Brexit & the DAO and Public Blockchain on Consensus, Fork, Decentralization and Security

Brexit and the DAO Hack
What is ‘Brexit’? The term is short for “British exit” — shorthand for the UK’s exit from the EU following the referendum result on June 23 2016, this unanimous referendum contributed a profound impact on the political and economic landscape worldwide. Obviously, the referendum is a way of reaching a consensus. Six hours right after the release of Brexit, “What is the EU?” came to the top search on Google. It indicates that the unanimous referendum has done under the situation that even many people did not know what the EU was. The next day, more than one million Britons will jointly hope for a second referendum.
Code was supposed to eliminate the need to trust humans. But humans, it turns out, are tough to take out of the equation
The DAO launched on 30th April, 2016, for whatever reason, the DAO was popular, raising over $100m by 15th May, with a 28-day. By the end of the funding period, The DAO was the largest crowdfunding in history, having risen over $150m from more than 11,000 enthusiastic members. Unfortunately, by Saturday, 18th June, the attacker managed to drain more than 3.6m ether into a “child DAO” that has the same structure as The DAO. The price of ether dropped from over $20 to under $13.
Meanwhile, Vitalik Buterin of the Ethereum Foundation issued a critical update, saying that the DAO was under attack and that he had worked out a solution. in order to save The Dao investors’ losses, the final decision was make to the hard fork.
In fact, prophase middle and late stage during the crowdfunding of The DAO project, many people indicated their design flaws and called for a temporary suspension of project crowdfunding. However, due to various reasons, those warnings did not cause enough attention to The DAO project team, which triggered DAO hack. Furthermore, this is an avoidable attact, but also reflects the greed of human nature.
The Brexit in which human society has reached consensus and the DAO hack in the blockchain seem to be unrelated incidents. But it is the most intense discussion of “consensus and fork, centering and decentralization” in the blockchain field. Hopefule, this article indicates the analogy between the Brexit & the DAO and the public blockchain.
The value of consensus
The consensus makes human beings valuable, since people do not live isolated. Furthermore, strong social attributes and networking which requires exchange and communication among people on the purpose of reaching consensus. How could we reach consensus? The first level is the linguistic consensus. The second level is semantic consensus. The third level is the implementation of consensus. In a consistent language environment, common understanding, people really implement the expected conclusions could be reached. However, in practice, deviations often occur in the implementation process.
The consensus is costly, take Brexit as an example again; the referendum off the European Union is time-consuming and laborious. First of all, we must mobilize all people have a reasonable understanding; Secondly, organize people to vote; thirdly, we have collect, sort, classify, and calculate the voting information; and finally, generate the result. The seemingly simple referendum, or the process of obtaining consensus, maybe it cost more than what we think.
Blockchain consensus VS human being consensus
The blockchain is established under consensus, a solid and unchangeable true record of consensus formation is formed. Here the longest chain represents the truth, and all people will accept it. And other branches are forked. There will be many new forks in the blockchain with the chain formation process. Fork is competitive with each other contribute that only the longest one can preserve and be recognized by all. This is the common rule of blockchain consensus.
On the other hand, the opposite of consensus is “differentiation.” But what causes the differences? First of all, in the process of reaching a consensus, there is no real consensus on connotation and extension. Secondly, even after a consensus is formed, people do not actually implement the conclusions based on the consensus mechanism. These disagreements could not generate the consensus. Once a new block is generated, it is synchronized to all or most of the nodes in real time. That is, once a consensus has been formed, it needs to be ensured that it is actually implemented. Only in this way can we ensure that all blockchain networks will always have a consensus.
With time being, the DAO hack attracts more people’s attention increasingly, especially in the term of soft forking and hard fork. “Hard fork” means that all transactions will be tracked back to a point in time before they are stolen. And “soft fork” is equivalent to closing all transactions from the attacker’s address.In simple terms, through active fork techniques, good people and attackers disagree, and the attacker’s malicious transaction is not recognized by most (good) people.
Byzantine General: Centered and Decentralized
From a comprehensive and objective expect the Dao hack, The Dao is the most important experiment of Bitcoin. In a world where everyone is accustomed to centralized management, and how to achieve a decentralized management organization? This problem could not get through is the issue of “General Byzantine”, which is a classic problem that assumes that good people in Byzantine are in the majority. The generals of the Byzantine Empire’s army must all unanimously decide whether to attack a particular enemy. The problem is that these generals are geographically separated and there are traitors in the generals. Traitors can act arbitrarily to achieve the following goals:
(1) Defrauding certain generals to take offensive actions;
(2) To facilitate a decision that not all generals agree on, such as when the generals do not want to attack to facilitate offensive actions;
(3) Enchant some generals to make it impossible to make a decision. If the traitor achieves any of these goals, the result of the attack is doomed to failure, and only a fully-consensual consensus can win.
The “Byzantine General” issue is a good example based on the settlement of consensus mechanisms, involving centralization and decentralization. If it is a centralized solution, it is none other than people who collectively elect some people as the general, and then the generals come to discuss and vote until the supreme commander makes a final decision on all factors. The decentralized solution is regarding all people are generals, and everyone is directly involved in the final decision.
Furthermore, distributed system and decentralization are often confusing, and even one-sided people think that distributed is equivalent to decentralization. In fact, distribution could be centralized, and centralized may also be decentralized. For example, all voters are required to go to the same place for the referendum. It is interesting that to select representatives to make decisions or all personnel to make decisions directly. Guess please, among those two methods which one ultimately leads to better decisions? In different perspectives, the answer is also questionable.
Centralized and Decentralized result of Brexit Results
If the above problem is mapped to the field of data mining and machine learning. “All staff” corresponds to “full sample data.” The “representative” corresponds to the filtered “sample data.” The “decision made” corresponds to the “generated model.” Unexpectedly, we will find that the data model generated based on full sample data may not be of the highest quality. Instead, those models are based on screening samples are more effective. The reason is very simple that when we are using full samples, we can’t avoid introducing additional noise. Accurately speaking, the full sample is sometimes not conducive to algorithms that generate models that match the distribution of real data. When noise is removed, the new model is more accurate. This is the statistical principle why people often need to do data cleaning operations before data modeling.
This difference is particularly evident in the Brexit. We can figure out that the big differences between the northern and southern parts of the UK. Northern Scotland and much of Ireland people strongly support the retention of Europe (yellow part in the picture), while most people in the southern region opt for Brexit (blue part in the picture). From all the British (full sample), the majority of people who chose to leave the European Union occupied the majority. In this process, it is obvious that the huge contradiction between local features and global statistics. If taking a centralized or decentralized approach, the conclusion may be completely different.
https://preview.redd.it/vs339s5f5dz01.png?width=459&format=png&auto=webp&s=44fa9302be93b54ae2d8267b10c1845191dd1fef
In the blockchain domain, the main advantages of decentralization are reflected in the support of “point-to-point” direct transactions and the establishment of strong trust relationships with many weak trust nodes. In the centralized solution, the center often becomes the “bottleneck” of the entire system, and becomes the weakest link in which the system is most vulnerable to be attacked. In order for the center to have sufficient processing power, throughput, security and reliability, it si often required to purchase the very expensive equipments.
Soft fork and hard fork is not inconsistent with decentralization
What is the correlation between disagreement or fork and decentralization? There is no necessary connection between those two indeed. From the DAO hack incident point of view, due to the fork proposal was Vitalik represented by the Ethereum Foundation appealed. Therefore, people might regard that “Is this not a new center?” Furthermore, there is a fundamental difference between such appeals and advocacy and true centralization. Whether people really make soft fork or hard fork depends on single people who are involved in building and operating the Ethereum network. As Vitalik stated in one of his public response that I will not stop or oppose the other’s their views or opinions in public or even lobby the miners to resist this soft fork.
Meanwhile, in the course of The DAO hack, there are a lot of rumors about whether “Ethernet blockchain is a decentralized network as it advertises” and “Ethereum blockchain will be stopped”. Because of the emergence of bitcoin mining machines and mining pools, there was a center for the calculation of bitcoin designs that were originally decentralized. These computing centers have a great impact on the Bitcoin network. Therefore, Ethereum could be carried out a new design, considering more decentralized approach, and reduce the possibility of specializing in the design and manufacture of the Ethereum mining machine in the future. The principle it adopts is very simple, which is, block calculation based on Ethereum blockchain must be based on relatively large memory. Existing miners that can perform Hash calculation directly on the bitcoin system. As a result, the cost of manufacturing Ethereum mining machines has become very expensive and centralised mining methods have been avoided as much as possible.
Of course, we must objectively treat the contrast between Bitcoin and Ethereum’s ecosystem, and Bitcoin still Take the absolute advantage. From the perspective of hash computing power, the average computational power of Bitcoin’s current network is about 1,500,000 TH/S, and Ethereum’s computational power is 4 TH/S, a 4 million-fold difference. There is also a problem of over-concentration of mining pools. Some domestic experts are optimistic about this matter. Another fact is that the vast majority of bitcoin mining pools are built in China. This is helpful for China to increase its influence in Bitcoin’s virtual world. From the point of my view, absolute centralization and absolute decentralization are undesirable; in particular, the fiery blockchain is now more based on Bitcoin’s existing blockchain design. The price increasing of Bitcoin’s is in kind of indicator that people are optimizing on blockchain technology in the future.
The DAO’s Security Alerts in the Middle and Application Layers
The most critical question that people are concerned from the DAO hack is the security issue. All security is needed to be hierarchical. As figure below indicated, in the Ethereum eco-system, the bottom level is the Taifang virtual machine — — EVM. The middle tier is a programming language or script needed to support application programming, such as Solidity, Python, Go, etc. The top level is various applications written in languages ​​such as Solidity. For example, the DAO is one of an Ethereum application. This architecture is analogous to the IT ecosystem that we are now familiar with. At the bottom level is the various operating systems people are familiar with, such as Windows, Linux, UNIX, For example, if it is a mobile ecosystem, it corresponds to Apple’s iOS and Android’s Android system. The middle tier is a variety of programming languages ​​such as Java, C++, Python, etc. The top level is a variety of applications, such as Taobao, WeChat etc.
After the hierarchy is divided, it is easy to trace back the problem. There is no necessary connection between The DAO Hack and Ethereum EVM. Just as there was a security issue when using Taobao or WeChat, and it’s crashed suddenly which could not due to the problem of Windows or IOS. However, the loopholes in the underlying system might contribute security problems in the upper application. Fortunately, in the DAO hack, security vulnerabilities did not appear in the underlying EVM, but it were origin form on recursive call vulnerability in the solidity programming. Just like there was a bug in the Java language, which led to the crash of Taobao or WeChat, this security issue is irrelevant to Windows or IOS.
In conclusion, one of the biggest problems of the public block chain is the contradiction between security and efficiency, that is to say that how to figure out the optimum balance between decentralization and efficiency? From the perspective of the public blockchain, it avoids the limitations of the intermediary institutions and establishes a peer-to-peer trust paradigm. As well as from the perspective of the alliance blockchain, its consensus approach is more based on the Byzantine fault-tolerance mechanism. Since it is multi-centered and balanced between each other, by establishing a distributed ledger, the possibility of any participants to change any records is minimal
As the international public blockchain originated from China, PCHAIN has always been committed technology driven, it’s no doubt that the native multi-chain system support larger transactions than intelligent contract platforms, and PCHAIN has been closely followed by community developers worldwide.
PCHAIN is making large-scale blockchain applications happen and enabling people to access the blockchain anytime, anywhere, as simple as accessing the Internet nowadays.
submitted by pchain_org to u/pchain_org [link] [comments]

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